A thesis , or dissertation [note 1] abbreviated diss. This is the typical arrangement in American English. In other contexts, such as within most institutions of the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland , the reverse is true. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, and the required minimum study period may thus vary significantly in duration. The word "dissertation" can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree.
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A table of contents in Word is based on the headings in your document. If you make changes to your document that affect the table of contents, update the table of contents by right-clicking the table of contents and choosing Update Field. To update your table of contents manually, see Update a table of contents. For each heading that you want in the table of contents, select the heading text. Word uses the headings in your document to build an automatic table of contents that can be updated when you change the heading text, sequence, or level. Click where you want to insert the table of contents — usually near the beginning of a document. Note: If you use a Manual Table of Contents style, Word won't use your headings to create a table of contents and won't be able to update it automatically.
Last Updated: March 26, References Approved. This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. There are 11 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. Different characteristics tend to exist within any given population as a result of mutation , genetic recombination and other sources of genetic variation. The scientific theory of evolution by natural selection was conceived independently by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in the midth century and was set out in detail in Darwin's book On the Origin of Species.