Academic dishonesty , academic misconduct, academic fraud and academic integrity are related concepts that refer to various actions on the part of students that go against the expected norms of a school, university or other learning institution. Definitions of academic misconduct are usually outlined in institutional policies. Throughout history this type of dishonesty has been met with varying degrees of penalties. Academic dishonesty dates back to the first tests. Standards for citation and referencing began at the end of the 19th century with the emergence of guidance provided by scholarly societies that developed discipline-specific expectations for referencing such as the MLA and the APA. It has been estimated that as many as two-thirds of students cheated at some point of their college careers at the turn of the 20th century. The issue of academic dishonesty became more prominent in the latter half of the twentieth century, as universities shifted towards more democratic approaches to admission.
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An admissions or application essay , sometimes also called a personal statement or a statement of purpose , is an essay or other written statement written by an applicant, often a prospective student applying to some college , university , or graduate school. The application essay is a common part of the university and college admissions process. Some applications may require one or more essays to be completed, while others make essays optional or supplementary. Essay topics range from very specific to open-ended.