Zero population growth , sometimes abbreviated ZPG also called the replacement level of fertility ,  is a condition of demographic balance where the number of people in a specified population neither grows nor declines , considered as a social aim by some. A loosely defined goal of ZPG is to match the replacement fertility rate , which is the average number of children per woman which would hold the population constant. This replacement fertility will depend on mortality rates and the sex ratio at birth, and varies from around 2. The American sociologist and demographer Kingsley Davis is credited with coining the term   but it was used earlier by George J. Stolnitz, who stated that the concept of a stationary population dated back to In the late s ZPG became a prominent political movement in the U.
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IN , when delegates from around the world gathered in Cairo for the International Conference on Population and Development, representatives from developing countries protested that a baby born in the United States will consume during its lifetime twenty times as much of the world's resources as an African or an Indian baby. The problem for the world's environment, they argued, is overconsumption in the North, not overpopulation in the South. Consumption in industrialized nations "has led to overexploitation of the resources of developing countries," a speaker from Kenya declared.
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