There are many types of pressure change during the fracturing process. However, it is very difficult to estimate those pressure changes and to predict how a fracture propagates. In the s, Nolte and Smith initiated a model for interpreting hydraulic fracturing pressures in conventional reservoirs and it still remains qualitative. An accurate interpretation of hydraulic fracturing pressures, during injection and after shut-in, is critical to understand and improve the fracture treatment in low-permeability gas formations such as tight sand and gas shale. It would also provide additional information about the wellbore and better understanding of the reservoir. In this study, new models for the accurate calculation of bottomhole treating pressure based on surface treating pressure were first developed. This calculation was determined by incorporating hydraulic pressure, fluid friction pressure, fracture fluid property changes along the wellbore, proppant effect, perforation effect, tortuosity, thermal effect, effect of casing, rock toughness, in-situ stress.
An Argument Against the Use of Hydraulic Fracturing
Hydraulic fracturing has been responsible for revolutionizing the oil and gas industry in the US, and has since gained increasing popularity as nations across the globe look for new energy sources. The United Kingdom UK has recently taken steps to use hydraulic fracturing to develop their own shale gas industry, although thus far the industry is still in the initial exploratory stages of development. There has been much debate over the benefits and risks that hydraulic fracturing and shale gas development pose to UK communities and this thesis will investigate the potential social impacts that hydraulic fracturing may have on communities in the UK. This thesis uses the experiences of the US to predict what may occur in the UK as the shale gas industry grows.
Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, has been a hot topic in recent times due to its controversial ways. Many people argue that it is a way for the United States to become less dependent on foreign oil, while others argue that the environmental cons outweigh the pros of fracking. Fracking is the process of extracting natural gas from underground by drilling into the earth. By doing this, the. Hydraulic Fracturing Research Paper Hydraulic Fracturing also commonly known as fracking is a process used to extract natural gasses deep within the earth.