The purpose of this review paper is to present and evaluate the empirical literature on the association between asthma and cigarette smoking. The authors conducted a literature search utilizing electronic search engines i. Only articles that focused on active tobacco smoking and analyzed groups with asthma patients only were examined in the present review. Overall, empirical evidence suggests that 1 smoking is more prevalent among individuals with asthma than those without; 2 smoking is a risk candidate for the development of asthma; 3 smoking is associated with decreased asthma control and increased risk of mortality and asthma attacks and exacerbations; 4 smokers with and without asthma may have different risk factors for smoking onset as well as different smoking motives and outcome expectancies; and 5 smoking cessation is associated with improvements in lung functioning and asthma symptoms.
Sadly, there are numerous causes of addiction that have permanent effects on a person abusing these substances. Teens are most likely to start abusing drugs when they are facing new and challenging social or academic situations. Many reports have been issued based on the evidence regarding the devastating health affecs of smoking and the expose of second hand smoke. Unfortunatly, cigarette smoking has reportedly caused about , deaths anually in the United States with an account of 41, deaths due to second hand smoking. It is indicated that America has the greatest heath issues from smoking. Neverless, it has been declining due to the rise on taxes and the promotions to cut down tabacco use advetisement. After plenty of years of smoking it eventually will take over your brain.
Cigarette smoking-a crucial modifiable risk factor for organ system diseases and cancer-remains prevalent in the United States and globally. In this literature review, we aim to summarize the epidemiology of cigarette smoking and tobacco use in the United States, pharmacology of nicotine-the active constituent of tobacco, and health consequence of cigarette smoking. This article also reviews behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for cigarette smokers and provides cost estimates for approved pharmacologic interventions in the United States. A literature search was conducted on Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, ClinicalKey, and PubMed databases using the following headings in combination or separately: cigarette smoking, tobacco smoking, epidemiology in the United States, health consequences of cigarette smoking, pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking, and non-pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking.