Academic dishonesty , academic misconduct, academic fraud and academic integrity are related concepts that refer to various actions on the part of students that go against the expected norms of a school, university or other learning institution. Definitions of academic misconduct are usually outlined in institutional policies. Throughout history this type of dishonesty has been met with varying degrees of penalties. Academic dishonesty dates back to the first tests. Standards for citation and referencing began at the end of the 19th century with the emergence of guidance provided by scholarly societies that developed discipline-specific expectations for referencing such as the MLA and the APA. It has been estimated that as many as two-thirds of students cheated at some point of their college careers at the turn of the 20th century.
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There used to be a set number of roles in a wedding party. The bride and groom, of course, and then the Maid of Honor, the Best Man, the bridesmaid, a groomsman, a flower girl and ring bearer — and that was about it. But in recent years, a new and extremely important role has become part of the wedding. It used to be reserved for religious officials, judges or captains of ships, but now anyone can become a wedding officiant.