A signal-flow graph or signal-flowgraph SFG , invented by Claude Shannon ,  but often called a Mason graph after Samuel Jefferson Mason who coined the term,  is a specialized flow graph , a directed graph in which nodes represent system variables, and branches edges, arcs, or arrows represent functional connections between pairs of nodes. Thus, signal-flow graph theory builds on that of directed graphs also called digraphs , which includes as well that of oriented graphs. This mathematical theory of digraphs exists, of course, quite apart from its applications. SFGs are most commonly used to represent signal flow in a physical system and its controller s , forming a cyber-physical system.
Adjusting temperatures for high altitude | Electronics Cooling
The Sun , like all stars, is an enormous ball of extremely hot, largely ionized gas, shining under its own power. And we do mean enormous. The Sun could fit Earths side-by-side across its diameter, and it has enough volume takes up enough space to hold about 1. The Sun does not have a solid surface or continents like Earth, nor does it have a solid core Figure 1. However, it does have a lot of structure and can be discussed as a series of layers, not unlike an onion.
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Thank you for registering with Physics World If you'd like to change your details at any time, please visit My account. A thermal cloaking technique that can hide warm objects from infrared cameras has been proposed by researchers in France, the US, and the UK. Fernando Guevara Vasquez at the University of Utah and colleagues have calculated that thermal cloaking can be achieved by surrounding objects with rings of tiny heat pumps that absorb and re-emit heat. Although further work is needed to demonstrate the technique in the lab, it could lead to better ways of protecting electrical circuits from heat damage.